LESSIG

They Don't Represent US

Cover of the book They Don039t Represent US by Lawrence Lessig

PURCHASE FROM:

About the book

With insight and urgency, Harvard law professor and author of the bestselling Republic, Lost Lawrence Lessig argues both that our government does not represent us and that how we are represented doesn’t represent us—both flaws yield a democracy in crisis, and both demand reform that is both essential and possible.

America’s democracy is in crisis. Along many dimensions, a single flaw—unrepresentativeness—has detached our government from the people. And as a people, our fractured partisanship and ignorance on critical issues drives our leaders to stake out ever more extreme positions.

In They Don’t Represent Us, Harvard Law professor Lawrence Lessig charts the way in which the fundamental institutions of our democracy, including especially our media, respond to narrow interests rather than to the needs and wishes of the nation’s citizenry. But the blame does not only lie with “them”—Washington’s politicians and power brokers, Lessig argues. The problem is also “us.” “We the people” are increasingly uninformed about the issues, while ubiquitous political polling exacerbates the problem, reflecting and normalizing our ignorance and feeding it back into the system as representative of our will.

What we need, Lessig contends, is a series of reforms, from governmental institutions to the public itself, including:

  • A move immediately to public campaign funding, leading to more representative candidates
  • A reformed Electoral College, that gives the President a reason to represent America as a whole
  • A federal standard to end partisan gerrymandering in the states A radically reformed Senate
  • A federal penalty on states that don’t secure to their people an equal freedom to vote
  • Institutions that empower the people to speak in an informed and deliberative way

A soul-searching and incisive examination of our failing political culture, this nonpartisan call to arms speaks to every citizen, offering a far-reaching platform for reform that could save our democracy and make it work for all of us.

Links & References

  1. https://news.gallup.com/poll/1615/environment.aspx (https://perma.cc/73SL-EQBJ)
  2. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/16/upshot/costs-health-care-us.html (https://perma.cc/56L3-NEPH)
  3. https://money.cnn.com/2018/01/16/news/economy/uninsured-americans/index.html (https://perma.cc/7HFG-DM47)
  4. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/state-us-infrastructure (https://perma.cc/VSJ7-EE86)
  5. https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2017/01/25/declining-trust-in-government-is-denting-democracy (https://perma.cc/LN43-K4NP)
  6. http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/10/16/globally-broad-support-for-representative-and-direct-democracy (https://perma.cc/27XE-WJSL)
  7. https://ourworldindata.org/democracy (https://perma.cc/E228-YYRY)
  8. http://vop.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Dissatisfaction_Report.pdf (https://perma.cc/MC8P-SN3J)
  9. http://www.people-press.org/2018/04/26/the-public-the-political-system-and-american-democracy (https://perma.cc/HEM5-ZWJR)
  10. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/debates_705.asp (https://perma.cc/3URH-3329)
  11. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/debates_714.asp (https://perma.cc/SF7X-A8PH)
  12. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed52.asp (https://perma.cc/KEH8-PDFM)
  13. http://money.cnn.com/2014/02/14/investing/tom-perkins-vote (https://perma.cc/DXG6-ZW3T)
  14. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plural_voting (https://perma.cc/QZ2C-GB7T)
  15. https://www.modernluxury.com/san-francisco/story/the-top-twenty-most-out-there-things-tom-perkins-said-last-night (https://perma.cc/GGV3-C75U)
  16. http://time.com/8466/tom-perkins-taxes (https://perma.cc/6YY9-QZ2H)
  17. https://www.reuters.com/article/venture-perkins-taxes/update-1-investor-tom-perkins-says-progressive-taxation-persecutes-the-rich-idUSL2N0LJ1QA20140214 (https://perma.cc/E2VM-4YB5)
  18. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/02/tom-perkins-has-a-fascinating-radical-un-american-voting-plan/283846/ (https://perma.cc/UY7M-NMJJ)
  19. https://www.nytimes.com/1964/06/17/archives/districts-ruling-shocks-capital-many-surprised-by-courts-decision.html (https://perma.cc/P6AD-AVGG)
  20. https://www.nytimes.com/1964/11/08/archives/one-man-one-voteyes-or-no.html (https://perma.cc/8MPY-ALUK)
  21. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0720/58298e221f8959500f3515c36509ba97e25d.pdf?_ga=2.256065347.915764302.1559755261-1110966293.1559755261 (https://perma.cc/Q5G6-MP2B)
  22. https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/publications/Purges_Growing_Threat_2018.1.pdf (https://perma.cc/KG3V-5YEZ)
  23. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstate_Voter_Registration_Crosscheck_Program (https://perma.cc/F6GT-ZNFN)
  24. https://www.newsweek.com/donald-trump-illegal-voters-republican-disguise-1215632 (https://perma.cc/T39T-K2UP)
  25. https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/publications/2018_06_StateOfVoting_v5%20%281%29.pdf (https://perma.cc/G3JF-F3UJ)
  26. https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/Long_Voting_Lines_Explained.pdf (https://perma.cc/9ZQH-T5Z7)
  27. https://www.thenation.com/article/there-are-868-fewer-places-to-vote-in-2016-because-the-supreme-court-gutted-the-voting-rights-act (https://perma.cc/RXL3-EM9B)
  28. https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-features/mitch-mcconnell-enemy-of-the-vote-787596 (https://perma.cc/ZWP8-AJT8)
  29. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/31/conservative-republicans-are-least-supportive-of-making-it-easy-for-everyone-to-vote/ (https://perma.cc/23PL-9R3Z)
  30. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHow_to_Steal_an_Election_-_Gerrymandering.svg (https://perma.cc/2H4C-37AD)
  31. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/03/01/this-is-the-best-explanation-of-gerrymandering-you-will-ever-see/?utm_term=.938081e0d446 (https://perma.cc/UH55-7XT8)
  32. https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2018/11/08/how-gerrymandering-kept-democrats-winning-even-more-seats-tuesday/?utm_source=reddit.com&utm_term=.c1275785fa06 (https://perma.cc/MXJ8-TFVH)
  33. https://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2019/01/23/to_fix_our_democracy_first_end_gerrymandering_139249.html (https://perma.cc/6XEX-ZGQ3)
  34. https://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/bethune-hill-v-virginia-state-board-of-elections/ (https://perma.cc/CA5E-ER22)
  35. https://adobeindd.com/view/publications/76a932db-5c64-472a-b201-6534a25a6d03/1/publication-web-resources/pdf/PVI_Doc.pdf (https://perma.cc/26U9-KJRT)
  36. http://humanevents.com/2014/10/08/republican-2014-primary-turnout-tops-democrats-for-the-second-time-since-1930 (https://perma.cc/HD98-LLH2)
  37. https://bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2018-Primary-Election-Turnout-and-Reforms.pdf (https://perma.cc/33QD-ZU8T)
  38. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/primaries-paper-ii.pdf (https://perma.cc/K7BT-F9AZ)
  39. https://www.nber.org/papers/w9409.pdf (https://perma.cc/5GTJ-PLH8)
  40. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/11YIF05F_hCNR4Hv8_kycjP59qXemonuSZ1uNY1tOahE/edit#gid=0 (https://perma.cc/468T-ENFS)
  41. https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-2018-primaries-project-the-ideology-of-primary-voters (https://perma.cc/S2UE-P9FQ)
  42. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2018/08/09/progressives-versus-the-establishment-an-updated-score/ (https://perma.cc/Y3C4-CQQL)
  43. https://news.gallup.com/poll/225074/conservative-lead-ideology-down-single-digits.aspx (https://perma.cc/U87Y-D7S3)
  44. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_A._Clark (https://perma.cc/M767-3T96)
  45. https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1890/01/17/103224567.pdf (https://perma.cc/7NBS-KLLE)
  46. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch8s10.html (https://perma.cc/K4MY-NNGM)
  47. https://lf-oll.s3.amazonaws.com/titles/1786/0544-02_Bk.pdf (https://perma.cc/J46S-MAGN)
  48. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3067992 (https://perma.cc/N6NC-LPQR)
  49. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/149KMsmvTPxYo8WAKtaBFM8aDWD_dMaGB6oxdjwkva20/edit#gid=0 )
  50. https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2018/10/new-jersey-wants-to-know-why-florida-is-exempt-from-trumps-offshore-drilling-plans (https://perma.cc/DLK9-EDXT)
  51. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/149KMsmvTPxYo8WAKtaBFM8aDWD_dMaGB6oxdjwkva20/edit?usp=sharing (https://perma.cc/GT5P-CXAE)
  52. https://www.npr.org/2019/01/14/684695273/report-americans-are-now-more-likely-to-die-of-an-opioid-overdose-than-on-the-ro (https://perma.cc/VA4D-6V67)
  53. https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/01/healthcare-industry-spends-30b-on-marketing-most-of-it-goes-to-doctors (https://perma.cc/K5MX-V85U)
  54. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jan/24/fda-opioids-big-pharma-prescriptions (https://perma.cc/4D32-GZEZ)
  55. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/10/30/the-family-that-built-an-empire-of-pain (https://perma.cc/J2S9-H7GW)
  56. https://dailycaller.com/2018/03/14/american-cartel-opioid-blood-money-sackler-family/ (https://perma.cc/LN59-7GSL)
  57. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/oct/19/big-pharma-money-lobbying-us-opioid-crisis (https://perma.cc/D372-4JHW)
  58. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/697954 (https://perma.cc/G7PV-EFZA)
  59. https://web.archive.org/web/20180205151429/https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042462/1908-05-03/ed-1/seq-3/ )
  60. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924066372859;view=1up;seq=668 )
  61. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433082528153;view=1up;seq=99 )
  62. http://economics.mit.edu/files/1226 (https://perma.cc/ZYK8-42EW)
  63. https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=264412 (https://perma.cc/2NAX-LDK6)
  64. https://history.house.gov/Institution/Election-Statistics/Election-Statistics/ (https://perma.cc/7F3Q-73VM)
  65. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/31/hong-kong-activists-open-elections-ruled-out-beijing (https://perma.cc/F8G6-WHMY)
  66. https://www.politifact.com/new-hampshire/statements/2015/jan/20/lawrence-lessig/lawrence-lessig-compares-number-fundraisers-betwee/ (https://perma.cc/B6YT-4UU7)
  67. https://factba.se/transcript/donald-trump-speech-waterloo-ia-october-7-2015 (https://perma.cc/ETF4-QDUH)
  68. https://factba.se/transcript/donald-trump-speech-green-bay-wi-august-5-2016 (https://perma.cc/7CT4-TQEN)
  69. https://factba.se/transcript/donald-trump-third-gop-debate-october-28-2015 (https://perma.cc/XE4A-KC5A)
  70. https://factba.se/transcript/donald-trump-speech-beaumont-tx-november-14-2015 (https://perma.cc/AZB3-AZGJ)
  71. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2018/11/02/congress-thinks-public-is-way-more-conservative-than-it-actually-is-deep-pocketed-lobbyists-are-blame-according-new-research/?utm_term=.d8bd569606d7 (https://perma.cc/T6UK-3TPB)
  72. http://ethics.harvard.edu/blog/relationship-market-how-modern-lobbying-gets-done (https://perma.cc/GP55-ZFBP)
  73. https://www.ineteconomics.org/perspectives/blog/big-money-not-political-tribalism-drives-us-elections (https://perma.cc/6A7F-WDW3)
  74. http://rooseveltinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/FiftyShadesofGreen_0517.pdf (https://perma.cc/Q6FS-WT9J)
  75. https://www.ineteconomics.org/uploads/papers/WP_48_Ferguson_et_al.pdf (https://perma.cc/7LGM-THY4)
  76. https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1250&context=ylpr (https://perma.cc/4UA3-B4ED)
  77. https://www.thenation.com/article/world-us-not-just-billionaires/ (https://perma.cc/CED3-SVTF)
  78. https://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/PA703.pdf (https://perma.cc/S22F-PAS7)
  79. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1MDGVPWC7a7EVC8SlpbmrGzTC6g_EQheSjj36Nuki4Z0/edit#gid=0 (https://perma.cc/CB57-ANPK)
  80. https://www.brennancenter.org/blog/what-it-cost-deny-climate-change (https://perma.cc/W4EZ-2E6R)
  81. https://www.dni.gov/index.php/what-we-do/ic-budget (https://perma.cc/G87D-H9UA)
  82. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/13/trump-signs-717-billion-defense-bill.html (https://perma.cc/5ARH-M8TC)
  83. https://www.opensecrets.org/industries/contrib.php?cycle=2018&ind=D )
  84. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/03/opinion/communist-party-usa-soviet-union.html (https://perma.cc/QH9C-XURE)
  85. https://exploringcatholicismandpolitics.files.wordpress.com/2019/02/fascism_and_the_new_deal-1.pdf (https://perma.cc/K6T8-YXWJ)
  86. https://millercenter.org/the-presidency/presidential-speeches/june-28-1934-fireside-chat-5-addressing-critics (https://perma.cc/G4GQ-SB5N)
  87. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/11/16/politics-and-the-new-machine (https://perma.cc/D7G6-6BXJ)
  88. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1379/polling-history-influence-policymaking-politics (https://perma.cc/YY85-5M56)
  89. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1YNamwY_lbXH8IdPgilKfPmMUI4_4i6IF/view (https://perma.cc/8FJW-QJED)
  90. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0675583 (https://perma.cc/L3KU-DJ37)
  91. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/media-studies-selma-n319436 (https://perma.cc/U5PV-3YR8)
  92. https://www.llsdc.org/congressional-record-overview (https://perma.cc/8WS7-AZLW)
  93. https://www.poynter.org/archive/2006/early-tv-anchors/ (https://perma.cc/67VF-LFXW)
  94. https://robertoigarza.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/art-the-big-threes-prime-time-decline-hindman-2008.pdf (https://perma.cc/7DDC-CNLB)
  95. http://themonkeycage.org/Shapiro%2520and%2520Bloch.pdf (https://perma.cc/22MM-48GW)
  96. https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/John_Gilmore (https://perma.cc/KP3M-8SQ8)
  97. https://www.newsweek.com/barack-obama-fox-news-qualtrics-x4-summit-donald-trump-1354601 (https://perma.cc/Y97V-PMBH)
  98. http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2011/05/fast-food-weight-gain-and-insulin.html (https://perma.cc/6SSA-56AS)
  99. https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=12486&context=journal_articles (https://perma.cc/D86F-YAC4)
  100. https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7622&context=ylj (https://perma.cc/ZGV3-X53G)
  101. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/les-moonves-donald- trump_us_56d52ce8e4b03260bf780275 (https://perma.cc/3SJN-DNEW)
  102. https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/aer.20160812 (https://perma.cc/Y4FZ-F8TH)
  103. https://www.nber.org/papers/w12169.pdf (https://perma.cc/G3JH-5EWK)
  104. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/06/23/americans-have-not-become-more-politically-polarized (https://perma.cc/DD5F-373D)
  105. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/opinion/commentary/ct-perspec-news-cnn-jim-acosta-trump-propaganda-tv-1119-story.html (https://perma.cc/H8UN-7XVN)
  106. https://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Pre-Primary-News-Coverage-Trump-Sanders-Clinton-2016.pdf?x78124 (https://perma.cc/7EKU-SV3L)
  107. https://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Election-2016-Primary-Media-Coverage.pdf?x78124 (https://perma.cc/R6SK-YK6V)
  108. https://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/2016-Convention-News-Coverage.pdf?x78124 (https://perma.cc/D2X9-RCFR)
  109. https://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/2016-General-Election-News-Coverage-1.pdf?x78124 (https://perma.cc/66QY-24FU)
  110. https://www.democracynow.org/2016/12/26/bernie_sanders_the_democracy_now_interview (https://perma.cc/FW4B-GWMR)
  111. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/697954 (https://perma.cc/G7PV-EFZA)
  112. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/51841c73e4b04fc5ce6e8f15/t/5c1924c2562fa7f0c0e90e08/1545151689089/Does_Party_Trump_Ideology_APSR.pdf (https://perma.cc/53MB-H5RW)
  113. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/02/27/why-facts-dont-change-our-minds (https://perma.cc/8YRT-Z6NK)
  114. https://newrepublic.com/article/142829/decline-fox-news-liberal-pundit (https://perma.cc/R44J-DTGT)
  115. https://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2019/01/03/tucker_carlson_we_are_ruled_by_mercenaries_who_feel_no_long-term_obligation_to_the_people_they_rule.html (https://perma.cc/4T2A-93EC)
  116. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Rks0K2P9DM (https://perma.cc/H8FH-K6JL)
  117. https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2018/3/15/17113176/new-york-times-opinion-page-conservatism (https://perma.cc/TL78-FSSF)
  118. https://thehill.com/homenews/media/398017-cavuto-reads-hate-mail-he-got-for-criticizing-trump-putin-summit-on-air (https://perma.cc/JK8C-F2E7)
  119. https://jcom.sissa.it/sites/default/files/documents/JCOM_1403_2015_Y04.pdf (https://perma.cc/Q538-WJGG)
  120. https://www.businessinsider.com/smart-tv-data-collection-advertising-2019-1 (https://perma.cc/3NE2-UK8K)
  121. https://m.sfgate.com/entertainment/the-wrap/article/Senator-We-Run-Ads-Hatch-Mocked-for-Basic-12822523.php (https://perma.cc/6AA7-4SHF)
  122. https://www.c-span.org/video/?443543-1/facebook-ceo-mark-zuckerberg-testifies-data-protection#&start=3049 (https://perma.cc/2GRP-P4QE)
  123. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/10876016/Zittrain_What%20the%20Publisher.pdf?sequ (https://perma.cc/C4FL-385R)
  124. https://news.microsoft.com/2011/10/13/microsoft-officially-welcomes-skype (https://perma.cc/V9QV-BC46)
  125. https://blogs.skype.com/stories/2014/12/15/skype-translator-preview-an-exciting-journey-to-a-new-chapter-in-communication (https://perma.cc/8VF4-4DYM)
  126. https://support.skype.com/en/faq/FA34583/skype-translator-privacy-faq (https://perma.cc/BBM4-TAJU)
  127. https://www.infoworld.com/article/2613439/in-memory-of-aaron-swartz--stealing-is-not-stealing.html (https://perma.cc/WNE9-LB7K)
  128. https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2013/07/24/204621796/ONLINE-REWARDS (https://perma.cc/DT9X-265S)
  129. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2018/06/18/video-game-addiction-is-a-real-condition-who-says-heres-what-that-means/?utm_term=.e767a933dbf4 (https://perma.cc/Q3QP-6TAD)
  130. https://www.nature.com/articles/tp201153.pdf (https://perma.cc/SF4R-LUAZ)
  131. https://medium.com/thrive-global/how-technology-hijacks-peoples-minds-from-a-magician-and-google-s-design-ethicist-56d62ef5edf3 (https://perma.cc/87UJ-J8YZ)
  132. https://web.stanford.edu/~gentzkow/research/facebook.pdf (https://perma.cc/2KW6-JXKM)
  133. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-facts-about-facebook-11548374613 )
  134. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/611806/how-social-media-took-us-from-tahrir-square-to-donald-trump (https://perma.cc/YN6E-8C25)
  135. http://www.niemanlab.org/2018/11/facebook-groups-are-the-greatest-short-term-threat-to-election-news-and-information-integrity (https://perma.cc/QJ3B-XMYD)
  136. https://medium.com/s/the-micro-propaganda-machine/the-2018-facebook-midterms-part-ii-shadow-organization-c97de1c54c65 (https://perma.cc/K66G-E2EX)
  137. https://thinkprogress.org/russia-jill-stein-2016-election-interference-48dff3966227 (https://perma.cc/SAG9-F3MC)
  138. https://theweek.com/speedreads/774985/exintelligence-chief-james-clapper-says-russia-won-election-trump-study-backs (https://perma.cc/2KVV-FVTP)
  139. https://medium.com/s/the-micro-propaganda-machine/the-2018-facebook-midterms-part-i-recursive-ad-ccountability-ac090d276097 (https://perma.cc/E8XZ-MEAJ)
  140. https://www.facebook.com/notes/mark-zuckerberg/a-privacy-focused-vision-for-social-networking/10156700570096634 (https://perma.cc/R3T4-RNZQ)
  141. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/06/technology/mark-zuckerberg-facebook-privacy.html (https://perma.cc/C9P9-LHLR)
  142. https://www.propublica.org/article/facebook-enabled-advertisers-to-reach-jew-haters (https://perma.cc/3LYK-DQJR)
  143. https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/336125/nbc-wins-season-tv-ratings-but-broadcast-nets-los.html (https://perma.cc/3RTJ-ZPDF)
  144. http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/20031/1/CM_CRO_Version.pdf (https://perma.cc/B4ZJ-2L84)
  145. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-018-0520-3 (https://perma.cc/YR7L-BQPT)
  146. https://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/research/cornell-law-review/upload/teachout-final.pdf (https://perma.cc/73ZM-Z9XG)
  147. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/11/16/politics-and-the-new-machine (https://perma.cc/V7HA-MDQM)
  148. https://www.fec.gov/updates/statistical-summary-24-month-campaign-activity-2017-2018-cycle/ (https://perma.cc/9VPE-WDY5)
  149. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/11/us/politics/2016-presidential-election-super-pac-donors.html (https://perma.cc/UVQ9-EYR5)
  150. https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1657&context=californialawreview (https://perma.cc/ZQ94-UZH9)
  151. https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1371&context=californialawreview (https://perma.cc/2VQC-RXVM)
  152. https://www.albany.edu/rockefeller/rock_images/faculty/malbin/articles/Malbin%20-%20Small%20Donors.pdf (https://perma.cc/V495-XNB3)
  153. http://www.capitolhillseattle.com/2017/12/seattles-democracy-vouchers-they-worked (https://perma.cc/8DUV-H9RK)
  154. https://www.jenheerwig.com/uploads/1/3/2/1/13210230/mccabe_heerwig_seattle_voucher_4.03.pdf (https://perma.cc/368D-MUNV)
  155. http://www.cfinst.org/pdf/state/nyc-as-a-model_elj_as-published_march2012.pdf (https://perma.cc/6THB-H7DD)
  156. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg52711/html/CHRG-111hhrg52711.htm (https://perma.cc/R9LN-C2EG)
  157. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ncr.154 (https://perma.cc/ZRL7-UYHL)
  158. https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/more-combating-corruption-other-benefits-public-financing (https://perma.cc/K5XX-J3EX)
  159. https://prospect.org/article/clean-election-state (https://perma.cc/2XWU-252P)
  160. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1450957 (https://perma.cc/4WUX-FM56)
  161. http://mysite.du.edu/~smasket/Masket_Miller_SPPQ.pdf (https://perma.cc/334L-A6Z5)
  162. https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=http://republicv2.lessig.org/links.php&httpsredir=1&article=1092&context=djclpp (https://perma.cc/9QTA-KHJG)
  163. https://equalcitizens.us/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Bonica-Expert-Report.pdf (https://perma.cc/H9JC-9MHU)
  164. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed52.asp (https://perma.cc/92J2-U2VK)
  165. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed57.asp (https://perma.cc/2UXE-D228)
  166. http://rooseveltinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Unstacked.pdf (https://perma.cc/7TWH-F4EE)
  167. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/3057/actions (https://perma.cc/2XTG-WX5X)
  168. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/10/opinion/house-representatives-size-multi-member.html (https://perma.cc/3CHT-PZXT)
  169. http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/multi-member-legislative-districts-just-a-thing-of-the-past (https://perma.cc/X5L4-QF5P)
  170. https://www.fairvote.org/fair_rep_in_congress#why_we_need_the_fair_representation_act (https://perma.cc/987S-SRXV)
  171. https://law.utexas.edu/faculty/publications/1997-The-Senate-An-Institution-Whose-Time-Has-Gone/download (https://perma.cc/V5KU-EBXJ)
  172. https://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/192_xgqr8qxd.pdf (https://perma.cc/CKV2-72YW)
  173. https://law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/neuborne_27.pdf (https://perma.cc/97N7-AUFJ)
  174. https://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5293&context=mulr (https://perma.cc/D66D-RDTG)
  175. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/23674879/Suber%20-%20Paradox%20of%20Self-Amendment%202.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (https://perma.cc/PU2A-4LGG)
  176. https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4567&context=uclrev (https://perma.cc/63SF-U8V7)
  177. https://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1927&context=lsfp (https://perma.cc/3WRU-N8PZ)
  178. https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=4589&context=uclrev (https://perma.cc/B84T-79F5)
  179. https://www.senate.gov/reference/reference_index_subjects/Rules_and_Procedure_vrd.htm (https://perma.cc/4GNV-UH7X)
  180. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42929.pdf (https://perma.cc/RAZ2-2HLG)
  181. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R44709.pdf (https://perma.cc/9MFS-22XP)
  182. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/112/sres28 (https://perma.cc/6RAL-QLYE)
  183. https://www.politico.com/story/2018/06/27/mitch-mcconnell-filibuster-trump-678817 (https://perma.cc/EAN6-P3HE)
  184. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/IN10329.pdf (https://perma.cc/N4N2-GKT5)
  185. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43823.pdf (https://perma.cc/KV4R-2JVL)
  186. https://www.nationalpopularvote.com/answering-myths (https://perma.cc/Q23C-Z2SV)
  187. https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2014/02/09/why-american-elections-cost-so-much (https://perma.cc/8D58-G8NQ)
  188. https://www.politico.com/story/2019/02/22/automatic-voter-registration-oregon-1181199 (https://perma.cc/WQ7Q-LGSZ)
  189. https://www.vox.com/the-big-idea/2016/12/15/13957714/voting-rights-states-ballot-franchise-civil-rights (https://perma.cc/R32M-N6HR)
  190. https://apnews.com/fb011f39af3b40518b572c8cce6e906c (https://perma.cc/KU74-NZ94)
  191. https://www.ajc.com/news/state--regional-govt--politics/high-rate-absentee-ballots-thrown-out-gwinnett/azdOsCxX2X6mT8PTrgZlJI (https://perma.cc/YC27-ZGQ7)
  192. https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/publications/Purges_Growing_Threat_2018.pdf (https://perma.cc/QQK6-SUZQ)
  193. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-01/13/c_137740551.htm (https://perma.cc/4JQH-KGPC)
  194. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mg.html (https://perma.cc/N8VM-8XQQ)
  195. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2172rank.html (https://perma.cc/RCL4-VF8R)
  196. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2153rank.html (https://perma.cc/WR8A-B2JY)
  197. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jopp.12032 )
  198. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27754507 )
  199. https://blog-iacl-aidc.org/blog/2018/12/3/delaying-tactics-or-useful-deliberative-exercises-the-irish-citizens-assembly-and-the-convention-on-the-constitution-fg557 (https://perma.cc/K3KM-NC4S)
  200. https://democracyrd.org/ (https://perma.cc/3DLX-V5RK)
  201. https://equalitybylot.com/2019/01/12/thought-piece-sharing-sortition-with-some-soul )
  202. https://www.mccunewright.com/blog/2017/march/5-of-the-largest-personal-injury-verdicts-ever (https://perma.cc/JGH3-3CBB)
  203. https://www.vox.com/2014/4/6/5556462/brain-dead-how-politics-makes-us-stupid (https://perma.cc/DZK4-D629)
  204. https://www.scribd.com/document/11446805/Sorted-Civic-Lotteries-and-the-Future-of-Public-Participation )
  205. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/probability-interpret (https://perma.cc/56L3-NEPH" target="_blank">https://perma.cc/56L3-NEPH)
  206. https://www.publicdeliberation.net/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1220&context=jpd (https://perma.cc/L597-TL7D)
  207. https://www.slowfoodusa.org (https://perma.cc/LF5X-HNGR)
  208. http://slowdemocracy.org (https://perma.cc/NW2T-7UYF)
  209. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/11/04/why-we-vote-for-dog-catchers-and-a-half-million-other-offices-nobody-understands/?utm_term=.58c8b1602c54 (https://perma.cc/ZJ8Z-3S2M)
  210. https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/politics/2016/09/08/have-too-many-elections/9Ke3RBW3la4tIeaZnxCfMO/story.html (https://perma.cc/U5G3-5K4L)
  211. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2141284?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents )
  212. https://oxfordre.com/politics/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-51?print=pdf (https://perma.cc/UU2Z-29LS)
  213. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/for.2016.14.issue-4/for-2016-0040/for-2016-0040.pdf )
  214. https://www.wsj.com/articles/cable-tv-shows-are-sped-up-to-squeeze-in-more-ads-1424301320?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsThird&ns=prod/accounts-wsj )
  215. https://www.forbes.com/sites/michellegreenwald/2018/10/04/why-podcasts-will-continue-to-grow-why-its-great-for-brands/#68c07dca205f (https://perma.cc/S6RF-5YVR)
  216. https://adage.com/article/digital/women-baby-boomers-driving-podcast-ad-revenue-growth/314815 (https://perma.cc/EHR5-4C6L)
  217. https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/306174 (https://perma.cc/MD7U-GA5B)
  218. https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.cmstudies.org/resource/resmgr/In_Focus_Archive/InFocus_54-4.pdf (https://perma.cc/9X5F-6TCC)
  219. https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2018/apr/19/why-homeland-deserves-to-go-out-on-top (https://perma.cc/MHD3-WCZH)
  220. https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2017/04/homeland-season-six-finale-review/522480 (https://perma.cc/L6WP-GC7Y)
  221. https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/10/02/homeland-is-the-most-bigoted-show-on-television/?utm_term=.9463e24afb32 (https://perma.cc/Z4AN-TD55)
  222. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/homeland-the-antidote-for-24 (https://perma.cc/X6PH-P85P)
  223. https://medium.com/jsk-class-of-2018/the-future-of-high-quality-documentaries-reaching-a-world-audience-c5c2033c87fd (https://perma.cc/TDW9-4YY3)
  224. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romer_v._Evans#Passage_of_Amendment_2 (https://perma.cc/WET7-72CH)
  225. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_California_Proposition_8 (https://perma.cc/XP7W-H35R)
  226. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_(film) (https://perma.cc/DQ8C-3VWV)
  227. https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/20031/1/CM_CRO_Version.pdf (https://perma.cc/SGA8-RKBS)
  228. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/10/information-fiduciary/502346 (https://perma.cc/H8QV-D9UP)
  229. https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/72839/ISJLP_V4N3_543.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (https://perma.cc/7KBN-8W8B)
  230. https://www.politico.eu/article/cambridge-analytica-chris-wylie-brexit-trump-britain-data-protection-privacy-facebook (https://perma.cc/F8NK-QKV4)
  231. https://www.referendumanalysis.eu/eu-referendum-analysis-2016/section-7-social-media/impact-of-social-media-on-the-outcome-of-the-eu-referendum/ (https://perma.cc/A54V-E7TM)
  232. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmcumeds/1791/1791.pdf (https://perma.cc/C8UP-TTRG)
  233. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jan/17/facebook-inquiry-russia-influence-brexit (https://perma.cc/KW9M-2RMX)
  234. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1083717 )
  235. http://www.congressionalresearch.org/LRA.html (https://perma.cc/C6BF-3BS6)
  236. https://www.axios.com/2018-midterm-elections-democrats-won-house-biggest-margin-a56a1049-8823-4667-8d81-2c67ef3f36f4.html (https://perma.cc/W3TL-Y9KH)
  237. https://ballotpedia.org/States_with_initiative_or_referendum (https://perma.cc/6AMV-AS3V)
  238. https://ballotpedia.org/Michigan_Proposal_2,_Independent_Redistricting_Commission_Initiative_(2018) (https://perma.cc/MZ77-DFDK)
  239. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_SFm-w9-Ky0&t=1s )
  240. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXPGNfh5l3E (https://perma.cc/449G-JGVW)
  241. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfBd4fjVTXU (https://perma.cc/K527-KEEB)
  242. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLKKbiA2btA (https://perma.cc/JG73-Y73U)
  243. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otUSpIPtmoQ (https://perma.cc/M8VX-X4QJ)
  244. https://www.bridgemi.com/public-sector/emails-michigan-republicans-brag-redistricting-protects-incumbents (https://perma.cc/243F-Y8XL)
  245. https://www.courts.maine.gov/opinions_orders/supreme/lawcourt/2017/17me100.pdf (https://perma.cc/6QPJ-EANH)
  246. https://www.electionscience.org/learn/library/the-spoiler-effect (https://perma.cc/J97W-SU5N)
  247. https://www.commoncause.org/democracy-wire/instant-runoff-voting-irv-vs-approval-voting-av (https://perma.cc/RP9U-ME9C)
  248. http://gerrymander.princeton.edu (https://perma.cc/2P5X-3CJW)
  249. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/mcconnell-says-bill-that-would-make-election-day-a-federal-holiday-is-a-power-grab-by-democrats/2019/01/30/57421dd6-24bd-11e9-ad53-824486280311_story.html?utm_term=.af6aeddae314 (https://perma.cc/KM8L-U3D7)
  250. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2019/01/mitch-mcconnell-admits-that-republicans-lose-when-more-people-vote (https://perma.cc/4E43-Y8NN)

updated: 8 months ago